This type of woven material is also known as fulled or milled cloth. Felting, fulling or milling is the process resorted to in order to give woven cloth a thick, compact, substantial feel, finish, and appearance. The construction of the goods is covered up and not seen when the cloth is examined. Napping and shearing may be applied, to aid in making felted cloth. The effect may be produced on woolens and cottons.
Felted material runs from medium to heavy in weight. Most of it is used in outerwear during the cold months. Cloths that may be felted are flannel, cricket cloth, molleton or silence cloth; many types of overcoating, such as melton, kersey, beaver, and broadcloth; fleece coats, reefers, ulsters, and heavy uniform goods. Certain suiting and dress goods material, robes, and blankets are felted.
The process of fulling and felting is like that of removing a spot or stain from a cloth or garment. In rubbing the affected area the cloth has the tendency to felt or mat, and the fibers to interlock. This tends to cover up the weave construction and gives the goods a felted appearance. Soap, heat, water, friction, and proper temperatures produce the felted effect seen on woven goods. Felting covers up the spaces between the interlacings in the weave, gives compactness to the goods, and thus affords more warmth.
Felt may be made of:
Camel and goat hair.
China cotton I
Cow and rabbit hair
Flocks and other mill wastes such as card strippings, shear wastes,
Reprocessed or new wool.